International Bureau of Education
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Content Section


  • Anderson, L. W. and D. R. Krathwohl. 2001. A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy. New York: Longman.
  • ASCD (formerly the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development). Lexicon of Learning (Online version).
  • Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). 2013. General capabilities in the Australian Curriculum. Sidney: ACARA.
  • Berliner, D. 1990. “What’s all the fuss about instructional time?” Pp. 3-35 in The nature of time in schools: Theoretical concepts, practitioner perceptions, edited by M. Ben-Peretz and R. Bromme. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Braslavsky, C. 2003. The curriculum. Geneva: UNESCO IBE. (Available online).
  • Brunello, G. and M. Schlotter. 2011. Non cognitive skills and personality traits: Labour market relevance and their development in education and training systems. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 5743 (May 2011). Bonn: IZA.
  • CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training). 2011. Glossary. Quality in education and training. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Colman, A.M. 2008. A dictionary of psychology. Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Connelly, F.M., M. F. He and JA Phillion (Eds.) 2008. The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction. London-Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2005. Glossary of assessment terms and acronyms used in assessing special education students. Second edition, August 2005. Washington DC: CCSSO.
  • ——. 2008. Learning progressions: Supporting instruction and formative assessment. (Prepared by M. Heritage). Washington DC: CCSSO.
  • Deißinger, T. and S. Hellwig. 2011. Structures and functions of Competency-based Education and Training (CBET): A comparative perspective. Mannheim, Germany: GIZ.
  • Delors, J. et al. 1996. Learning: The treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Dewey, J. 1902. The child and the curriculum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • D’Hainaut, L. 1988. Des fins aux objectifs de l’éducation. Un cadre conceptuel et une méthodologie générale pour établir les résultats attendus d’une formation. Brussels: Labor.
  • European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. 2006. Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning. Document (2006/962/EC).
  • Greaney, V. and T. Kellaghan. 2007. Assessing national achievement levels in education. National Assessments of Educational Achievement, Volume 1. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Ho, E. 2012. Student learning assessment. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia-Pacific Regional Bureau for Education.
  • Hooge, E., T. Burns and H. Wilkoszewski. 2012. Looking beyond the numbers: Stakeholders and multiple school accountability. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 85. Paris: OECD.
  • International Labour Office (ILO). 2007. ABC of women workers’ rights and gender equality. Second edition. Geneva: ILO.
  • ——. 2010. Teachers and trainers for the future – Technical and vocational education and training in a changing world. Report for discussion at the ‘Global Dialogue Forum on Vocational Education and Training’, 29–30 September 2010. Geneva: ILO.
  • Jackson, P. W. (Ed.) 1992. Handbook of research on curriculum: A project of the American Educational Research Association. New York: McMillan.
  • Jonnaert, Ph. 2002. Compétences et socioconstructivisme. Un cadre théorique. Paris-Brussels: De Boeck.
  • ——. 2007. Le constructivisme comme fondement des réformes contemporaines des systèmes éducatifs. Dakar: Éditions des Écoles Nouvelles Africaines.
  • Jonnaert, Ph. et R. Defise. 2004. Constructivisme : un cadre de référence. Dakar: Éditions des Écoles Nouvelles Africaines.
  • Kolb, D. 1984. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall.
  • Kridel, C. (Ed.) 2010. Encyclopedia of curriculum studies. London: SAGE.
  • Lai, E. R. and M. Viering. 2012. Assessing 21st century skills: Integrating research findings. Vancouver, BC: National Council on Measurement in Education.
  • Mayer, J., P. Salovey and D. R. Caruso. 2004. “Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications.” Psychological Inquiry 15(3), pp. 197–215.
  • Ministry of Education of Iraq. UNESCO Office Iraq (Jordan). 2012. Iraqi Curriculum Framework. Produced with the technical support of UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE). Amman (Jordan): UNESCO Office Iraq.
  • Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Kosovo. Curriculum framework for pre-university education in the Republic of Kosovo. Prishtina, August 2011.
  • Naudeau, S. et al. 2011. Investing in young children: An early childhood development guide for policy dialogue and project preparation. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Oates, T. 2010. Could do better: Using international comparisons to refine the National Curriculum in England. Cambridge Assessment. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate.
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2002. Glossary of key terms in evaluation and results-based management. Paris: OECD.
  • ——. 2004. OECD handbook for internationally comparative education statistics: Concepts, standards, definitions and classifications. Paris: OECD.
  • ——. 2008. OECD glossary of statistical terms. Paris: OECD.
  • ——. 2009. PISA 2009 Assessment Framework. Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science. Paris: OECD.
  • ——. 2013. Synergies for better learning. An international perspective on evaluation and assessment. Paris: OECD.
  • OECD and European Commission. 2004. Career guidance. A handbook for policy makers. Paris: OECD.
  • OECD–Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI). 2007. Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science. Paris: OECD.
  • Ontario Ministry of Education. 2002. The Ontario curriculum unit planner. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.
  • Pellegrino, J. W. 1996. “Abilities and aptitudes.” Pp. 633-638 in International encyclopedia of developmental and instructional psychology, edited by E. de Corte and F. E. Weinart. Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Queensland Department of Education and the Arts. 2004. Homework literature review. Summary of key research findings. November 2004.
  • Scottish Government. 2009. Curriculum for Excellence. Building the curriculum 4. Skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work. Edinburgh.
  • Seel, N. M. (Ed.) 2012. Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning. London-New York: Springer.
  • Southern African Development Community (SADC) and Commonwealth of Learning (COL). 2000. “Module 14. Curriculum practice.” General education modules for upper primary and junior secondary school teachers of science, technology and mathematics by distance in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Vancouver: COL.
  • Taba, H. 1962. Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt Brace and World.
  • Tyler, R. W. 1949. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Tuck, R. 2007. An introductory guide to National Qualifications Frameworks: Conceptual and practical issues for policy makers. Skills and Employability Department, International Labour Office (ILO). Geneva: ILO.
  • UNESCO. 1992. World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs. Adopted by the ‘World Conference on Education for All Meeting Basic Learning Needs’, Jomtien, Thailand, 5–9 March 1990. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 1994. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Adopted by the ‘World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality’, Salamanca, 7-10 June 1994. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2001. Revised Recommendation concerning technical and vocational education. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2003a. An overview of UNESCO’s role in the revision and review of textbooks and learning materials. Division for the Promotion of Quality Education, Education Sector. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2003b. Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO Education Position Paper. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2004a. Report of the Inter-agency Working Group on life skills in EFA. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2004b. Changing teacher practices. Using curriculum differentiation to respond to students’ diversity. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2005a. Aspects of literacy assessment: Topics and issues from the UNESCO Expert Meeting 10–12 June, 2003. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2005b. Towards knowledge societies. UNESCO World Report. Paris: UNESCO.
  • ——. 2009. Policy guidelines on inclusion in education. Paris: UNESCO.
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). 2009. Guide to measuring Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. Technical Paper No. 2. Montreal: UIS.
  • ——. 2012. International Standard Classification of Education – ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS. (Available online).
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and UNESCO IBE. 2013. Questionnaire on intended instructional time. (Downloadable from the UIS website).
  • UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE). 2006. Textbooks and quality learning for all: Some lessons learned from international experiences. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.
  • ——. 2011. What makes a good quality school curriculum? Background paper developed by P. Stabback, B. Male and D. Georgescu. Geneva: UNESCO IBE. (Unpublished).
  • UNICEF. 2000. Curriculum report card. Working Paper Series, Education Section, Programme Division. New York: UNICEF.
  • Wallace, S. (Ed.) 2009. A dictionary of education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wilson, M. R. and M. W. Bertenthal (Eds.) 2005. Systems for state science assessment. Committee on Test Design for K–12 Science Achievement and National Research Council. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
  • World Education Forum. The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: Meeting our collective commitments. Adopted by the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Wyatt, T. 2004. International benchmarking of vocational education and training. National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Adelaide: Australian National Training Authority.
  • Wyatt-Smith, C. and J. Joy Cumming (Eds.) 2009. Educational assessment in the 21st century. Connecting theory and practice. London-New York: Springer.
Additional standard definitions included in ISCED 2011 (in English, French and Spanish) can be consulted online:

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